Maturitas. 2013 Jun;75(2):142-7 Antihypertensive treatment in diabetic patients. Review of current data. Argyrakopoulou G, Tsioufis C, Sdraka E, Tsiachris D, Makrilakis K, Stefanadis C.
Thirty to 50% of diabetic patients suffer from hypertension, exhibiting increased cardiovascular risk. In the present article we review key studies regarding the current knowledge for blood pressure (BP) goals in people with diabetes, the treatment used and the possible diabetogenic effects of antihypertensive drugs, as well as the beneficial and non-beneficial combinations of antihypertensive drugs in diabetic patients. Early placebo controlled trials proved the beneficial outcome of BP lowering in diabetic patients with initially high BP levels. More recent trials examined the impact of intensive compared to less intensive BP goals in diabetic populations. However, initial BP goals had significant differences from final achieved BP levels. Accordingly, current data support initiation of antihypertensive drug treatment in all patients with diabetes and systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg, with the aim to lower it consistently <140 mmHg, although how far below 140 mmHg the systolic BP goal should be is not clear. Available literature indicates that more than one drug is commonly used to achieve target BP. Drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis have been shown to act protectively on diabetic nephropathy, while β-blockers and diuretics seem to have a diabetogenic effect. Interestingly, recent studies examining the role of combined use of available renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis blockers versus its separate use exhibited an increased incidence of adverse outcome in diabetic patients who used combinations of drugs that act against renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. More studies need to be conducted in order to establish the best combination therapy to reduce diabetic complications.